Education & Learning – the first 10,000 hours….

learning-philosophy

The first 10,000 hours of practice is everything…..

“10,000 hours. That is: 40 hours per week, for 48 weeks a year, for 5.2 years. A full-time employment workload excluding time where the aspiring practitioner is observing, or being talked through a task by a professional practitioner.  A full-time employment workload, excluding training periods where the aspiring practitioner is doing menial or non-related functions around the site of the practice. 10,000 hours of working in your practice, following process and developing your workflow.
10,000 hours of assessing situations; considering choices and options to proceed; making a decision as to which choice or option appears to be the most effective one to proceed; and proceeding.
10,000 hours of assessing the result of that workflow. Perhaps a positive outcome? Perhaps a not positive outcome, and needing to consider the other options one may have taken in a repeat of that situation in the coming weeks.
40 hours per week, 48 weeks a year, for 5.2 years of practice, doing. Experiencing, observing, reflecting, considering, deciding, and developing ones’ practice. 10,000 being a practitioner, in order to develop to a level that of a professional practitioner” (Page 2017a).

On the job training

In his 2012 blog Industry Outline, David L Page listed a diversity of roles within the audio industry, which were traditionally trained within industry as employment placements. The apprenticeship model served aspiring audio industry practitioners by providing an junior role opportunity within an industry-based practice, surrounded by professional practitioners. It was an ideal training ground for aspiring practitioners, An aspiring audio industry practitioner requires guidance and training to introduce them to all aspects of a studio:
“with skilled practitioners to observe, imitate and then the opportunity to apply as the situation provided: the importance of training in the workplace, “learning and working are interdependent” (Billet 2001, 39; Burgess 2013, 38). The “apprenticeship approach – modelling, coaching, scaffolding and fading” was used as it was found to be central to effective workplace-training techniques (Billet 2001, 145 in Page 2012).
The motivated aspiring practitioner needed to gain an industry placement, commit to doing a good job by imitating the professional practitioners, and over the course of five (5) to ten (10) years experience, they would develop themselves into professional practitioners on the basis of 10,000 hours practice (excluding training).

Changing worlds

However, with the ever diminishing opportunities within industry in such industry placements (particularly in audio with the decreasing number of  large format console studios in existence, but an increase in access to technology (see History of Music Production Part 4 Page 2015a), contemporary aspiring practitioners now have access to technology, but more than likely will be:
“without access to experienced and skilled technicians within work-place-training environments” (Hague 2010; Therbege 1997, 19 in Page 2015g)
In his 2013 blog (see Introduction to Audio Engineering), Page outlines what an aspiring practitioner needs to develop as part of their initial industry orientation.

The era of self-learning

In contemporary practice – in order to gain knowledge and develop one’s skills – aspiring practitioner are now required to possess the added personal qualities of discipline, commitment and the ability to self-learn. Effective DIY learning requires the aspiring practitioner to be resourceful – motivated and proactive in sourcing and seeking out information and learning opportunities. With the unlikelihood of finding an existing site to receive workplace-training, the contemporary practitioner needs to be resourceful in their quest to learn the art and craft. Accompanying their on-going practice, aspiring practitioners now also need to become “aware of the questions and problems” that all practitioners are likely to face (Burgess 2013, 35 in Page 2013). Whilst there is an abundance of resources today aimed at the DIY practitioners that are aligned to effective self-learning methods and tools, the aspiring practitioner must maintain their discipline, commitment and the ability to self learn; in order to gain the required knowledge and developed skill to practice at a professional level (Billet 2001, 71 in Page 2013).

Access to self-learning resource options

In his 2015b blog (see Research Practitioner Part 1) Page outlines the historical development of the audio industry, noting several historically significant resources that were developed.
“Today, there exists an enormous range of resources in the market place today to support contemporary DIY music practitioners. Sources of knowledge and influence include: 1) academic texts, academic journals, functional textbooks[4], industry associations, industry conferences, industry trade magazines, product and service providers, manufacturers and distributors, specialist professionals such technicians and engineers, forums, blogs and websites; courses, and; cultural production artifacts such as albums, CDs and mp3s. Additionally, professional level videos such as on Pensado’s Place and Lynda.com provide industry experienced and skilled technicians, with the benefit of this resource being it can be replayed infinite times. Burgess (2013, 35) encourages the practitioner to “learn as much as you can by imitation from the most experienced people who are available to you”. However, lacking in contemporary practice is having a more experienced and skilled technician observe one’s practice to provide appropriate feedback, further explanation and retraining as required. Networks and communities can provide such an opportunity, with experienced and skills technicians available to provide mentoring and training opportunities” (Page 2015b).

The era of self-reflection

“In addition to the imitation and experience, a third essential aspect of training in order to develop ones’ knowledge in order to develop ones’ practice is, reflection (Burgess 2013, 35; Schön 1983, 3; McKee 2003; Roth 1989). Reflection allows for the consideration of your practice – “to understand, question, and investigate” – to appraise if one’s current processes are the most appropriate, or ‘best practice’ (Brookfield 2002, 32). Certain scholars believe reflection is so essential, one will experience a “crisis of confidence in professional knowledge” if it is lacking from ones’ practice routine” (Schön 1983, 3 in Page 2015c). 
In order to become a professional practitioner, one must engage in one’s own development. One needs to adopt an attitude of self-learning across one’s life: life-long learning – constant and never-ending improvement. In order to become the best practitioner one can be, one must take every opportunity to learn. The most effective way to do this, is to become one’s own teacher – learning to observe and advise in, or on one’s own practice, and then make positive change to process. That is, develop one’s own reflective and reflexive practice. In Page’s blog (2016d) on his educational & learning practice, he notes:
“Given my approach to practice [see Layer 5: My approach to all forms of practice], I am of the belief that there is little point in being proactive in professional practice, without engaging in professional development research or learning. Further, having engaged in professional development research or learning, I need to take the process one step further and reflect upon what I have learnt, consider the possible application to the particular context I am engaged in; and to then decide for change, and to implement that change into my practice. Yes, being proactive in professional practice, means engaging in professional development research – that of reflective and reflexive practice” (Page 2016d).
To become a proactive reflective and reflexive practitioner is to proactively – consciously, systematically and rigorously – observe one’s practice for the purposes of analysis, evaluation and development. To become a proactive reflective and reflexive practitioner, is a to a large degree, to become self-reliant as a practitioner. This is not to say, that one must become a lone wolf – an island. This is to be prepared to embark on a developmental plan of one’s practice, without necessarily either the financial cost or time-cost to engage the services of a practice consultant to advise you on how you may develop your practice: an external person who is likely not to know your practice in any way close to how you know your own practice.

Reflection of practice, in order to be reflexive for practice

A professional practitioner therefore incorporates reflection into their practice. A professional practitioner will consciously, deliberately and systematically make the time to reflect on what they have been doing in their practice; considering any disparities and possible developments that they may have picked up from other practitioners that could potentially be incorporated into future practice (reflexive practice). Picking up innovative structures, techniques or equipment other practitioners may be employing in their practice process, to realise unique outcomes. This observation and reflection process may be done by whatever resources one has on hand: by direct observation of peers or mentors, via resources such as texts and videos, or via attending course (formal or informal).

Being proactive in the practitioner process

A professional practitioner is passionate about the practice they are engaged in, and therefore focussed in each and every day of practice. For most I have discussed with, there are never enough hours within the day to realise everything that they desired to get done. In my observation, professional practitioners are unrelenting:
“10,000 hours: 40 hours per week, 48 weeks a year, for 5.2 years of practice, doing. Experiencing, observing, reflecting, considering, deciding, and developing ones’ practice. 10,000 being a practitioner, in order to develop to a level that of a professional practitioner” (Page 2017a).
~DLP Pro Image Fun 5b small.20141020
(Page 2016a)

An advocate of 10,000 hours practice…..

Throughout his many forms of practice, Page (2015d) has espoused the need of 10,000 hours practice for several decades in his mentoring of aspiring practitioners. In his blog Professional Practice,
“my over riding philosophical stance embraces the 10,000 hours trades philosophy of skilled craftworkers (Ericsson et al 1993 in Page 2004). I value and believe in the merit of developing of a skill, a trade, a craft, or art – for that practitioner developing specialist knowledge and tools over many thousand’s of hours of practice, to ultimately express one self through uniquely personalised and developed content, information knowledge base and skill level. I consider this approach integral to becoming a professional practitioner” (Page 2004 i nPage 2015d).

Multiple practitioner

Page (2017b) has an extensive range of experience – and formal qualifications – across a number of fields and disciplines (see Linked-in Professional Profile). Namely in: Music Industry; Sound Production; Automotive Engineering; Business, Management & Communication; Education; and Governance. Across four (4) decades of practice, Page has learnt to invest him self into all of his practice. Irrespective of which discipline, he is focused at any moment in time in any one of his forms of practice. Page understands the importance of researching the field, encompassing the main elements of the discipline, and channelling this into his particular interpretation of what his practice will be within that field and discipline. Based on his personal cultural vision of values and beliefs, Page sculpts his practice with outcomes aligned to his self and motives (see Page 2017c Research Practitioner – Pt 16).
Page’s main practice as of 2017 resides in education & learning practice, academic research practice, creative practice, professional consulting practice and family responsibilities. It is worth noting, that over 10,000 hours of practice has been invested into each of his disciplinary practice at some point. I think would suggest that Page’s holistic view of practice is the result of having immersed himself into the number of industries and disciplines across his life as he has.

David L Page has been married for several decades..

With his life partner, Page has created a portfolio that allows him to pursue his diverse interests across a range of industries and disciplines (see Linked-in Professional Profile).
Given that both Page and his life partner came from different cultural backgrounds and experiences, they consciously developed their own culture – a conscious decision to blend particular values and beliefs from both of their diverse cultural backgrounds to accommodate and respect both parties view points and needs. It is interesting that this process was engaged in a number of decades ago, with Page becoming somewhat of a specialist in cultural development of organisations, designing and delivering a number of corporate training programs across the globe. The basis of this cultural orientation is embedded within what Page now refers to as his Charter of Values and Beliefs.

Creative practice

Page’s primary creative practice endeavours are as a writer, musician, songwriter, composer, sound engineer and producer.
“Music has been the one constant in my life, central to my being, accompanying me wherever I am, irrespective of whether I am physically playing, listening or internally listening via memory. Irrespective of the location, circumstance or event, music is within me. Music practice is not a choice for me; it is a necessity. I have practiced music for over four decades in multiple social and cultural contexts, and in significantly contrasting creative locations, such as a church choir singer, musician, songwriter, band member, teacher, project manager, engineer, solo artist, musician for hire, producer, and most recently an Electronic Music Producer and educator. I have engaged a (vast) range of technologies, using countless variations of workflow. I continue to practice music on a daily basis, engaging physical instruments, digital virtual technologies, or in the research, analysis, or listening to music styles” (Page 2015e, 5).
 Whilst his current motives for practice are not volume sales-based, on the back of my four decades of practice, he has his eyes very much on the future.
“I still have a lifetime of music goals still to realise: songs to write and arrange; sonic textures to explore; creative productions to develop; and engage with both my peers and the public to a far greater degree than I have to date” (Page 2015e, 6).
Page is also an Avid Technology Accredited Instructor (Pro Tools), mentoring and guiding aspiring musicians and producers in the development of their craft and art.

Research practice

Page is currently studying his Doctorate in Creative Industries at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia. The aim of this Doctor of Creative Industries Research Project is to investigate both his DIY music practice and his self as a practitioner during the process of creating and producing a cultural artefact (EP).  His research study is designed to be a mixed-method qualitative study: a practice-based, ethnographic study that is to include a first-person narrative of his personal journey, critical reflection and reflexive practice, highlighting the co-constituted nature of his music practice. As an auto-ethnographic study, he has designed the project with him performing the dual primary roles of being both the practitioner as subject, and the researcher. Such a multi-tiered examination represents a significant departure from current discussion of music practice, developing praxis of contemporary music practice. In this Project 1 research study exegesis submission, Page (2015f) intends to narrate the process to date, highlighting observations around him self as a practitioner, his music practice and the emergent distinctions integrated into his developing music praxis ( Music Practitioner Part 5).
As part of his academic research practice (but also part of his creative process within that process), Page has just written a series of memory blogs that follow his developmental process – reflecting on selected significant events in the early stages of his life, and associating sonic and musical textures that best represent his memory of those significant events. The collection of associative memories have then be formed into a composition of a fifteen (15) minute soundtrack of the first stage of his life. This cultural artefact is to make up one part of Page’s (2016b) Doctoral Project 1 submission (see Memory – Introduction).

Education & Learning practice

Page has spent almost three (3) decades in one form or another of education and learning practice. Predominantly situated in post-compulsory practice, he has experience in vocational , higher education and non-accredited proficiency-based education and learning practice. As part of this, Page has specialised in what he classifies as community education – providing education & learning opportunities for dis-advantaged groups. Such role have included that of mentor, coach, and facilitator. Currently, Page (2017b) is working as a Senior Lecturer in a Higher Education creative media institute in Australia.
“As a Senior Lecturer at SAE Institute Brisbane, David has provided Module coordination and/or instruction over the past five (5)  years in: audio theory (signal flow, microphone, audio processing, sound theory, acoustics, applied electronics, critical & analytical listening); pre-production, production & post-production (planning, tracking & mixing narrations, songs and soundtracks, including instrumentation & arrangement, across various formats – organic, virtual & fusions); creative media studies; reflective practice. David is currently the Higher Education (HE) Final Creative Projects Module Coordinator & Supervisor of audio-based final projects. David is an Avid Technology Accredited Instructor (Pro Tools).
SAE Institute is a Creative Media Institute offering a range of HE & HE Diploma offerings across the disciplines of Animation, Audio, Film, Game Design, Game Programming, Graphic Design & Web Programming at over 50 locations globally. SAE Institute is part of the Navitas Group “(Page 2017b).

Multi-facetted practitioner

In a recent blog, (Page 2017c) restated a resounding theme of his practice – the concept of the multi-facetted, multi-dimensional, multi-disciplinary practitioner. The practitioner who practices beyond boundaries of specific discipline practice. In his classrooms, Page encourages aspiring creative practitioners studying in the fields of animation, audio, film, graphic design, games development & programming, and web applications development to consider their practitioner positioning to be that of a broader creative practitioner.

DLPs Multi-faceted Practitioner.20170212.P4

(Page 2017c)
“I engage passionately in all forms of my multi-faceted practice, consisting of creative practice, research practice, or education & learning practice. After much observation, I now accept that the self informs my multi-faceted practice of creative practice, research practice, or education & learning practice – conceptually and literally. My multi-faceted practice of creative practice, research practice, or education & learning practice in turn informs/contributes to the self, even if that contribution is only with increased clarity around that particular practice, which in turn increases confidence within the self. I have observed within the self, that this increase in confidence in turn informs and/or shapes my practice – irrespective of what practice I am about to engage in – my creative practice, my research practice, or my education & learning practice. Over the course of the twelve (12) month research study Project 1, I have observed this cycle of interdependency and commonality between the self – my self – and the various incarnations of my practice – creative practice, research practice, or education & learning practice” (Page 2017c).

The importance of self in the practitioner process…

In commencing my research study, to investigate my music-making practice, I quickly realised that the self was core – central – to my practice. I had an immediate sense, that for me to better understand my practice, I needed to better understand my self. This came as a shock initially – something I rejected. “Me?” “My self?” I had studied my self over a number of decades, and I – of many practitioners I knew – had a great sense of who I was. But as I delved more into literature regarding both arts research and the self, I admitted that perhaps it couldn’t hurt to reinvestigate the self, from the perspective of this academic research study.
“Observing new music production technologies and associated workflows impacted my music practice and the realisation of my creative productions. I observed this phenomenon had an effect on the concept of my self, which then in turn had an effect on my motive to practice music. Music is acknowledged as being particularly important in terms of the development of the self” Hargreaves et al (2002) discuss how music facilitates self expression and development, allowing the self to transform, and construct new identities. Frith (1996,124) argues that “Music constructs our sense of identity through the direct experiences it offers of the body, time and sociability, experiences which enable us to place ourselves in imaginative cultural narratives” (Page 2015f)
Since engaging in my doctoral research study, I have embarked on several self-knowledge activities, such as the development of a Charter of Values and Beliefs (2017e, 2016c, 2016e). It has been an extremely beneficial process.
“Engaging in this research study has allowed me to continue to develop my self, increase my self confidence, develop clarity regarding my practice, and increase my confidence with this task at hand as a practitioner with my Research Study Project 1. In short, it has allowed me to become a more holistic and balanced practitioner – an expanded practitioner (see figure III below)” (Page 2016c)
Figure III – Project 1 Research Study Developed Approach (Page 2016c)
“While Bennett (2000, ii) concludes that “music is produced and consumed by young people in ways that both inform their sense of self and also serve to construct the social world in which their identities operate”. For many decades I have asked questions of my self, though always in isolation of my music practice. Velosa and Carvalho’s (2013) “Music Composition as a way of learning: emotions and the situated ‘self” and Taylor’s (2008) “Pink Noise: Queer Identity and Musical Performance in a local context” both stressed the importance of situating the self within the context of interest, in order to study it. There are a number of studies where this is done, from example Taylor’s (2012) and Peraino’s (2006) studies of gender. However, whilst an increasing number of music practice discussions include the element of self, however, few exist outside of academic-based articles or texts (DeNora 1999; MacDonald et al 2002; DeNora 2005; Peraino 2006; Taylor 2012 in Page 2015b)
One by product of my expanding the observation of my focus to all forms of my practice, is for my education & learning practice. Being a Senior Lecturer within a Higher Education (HE) Institute enables me to engage in discussions of practice and approach almost on a daily basis. Given my education & learning practitioner peers know my research study is centred around self, practitioner self, and a methodology of reflective and reflexive practice; I have been asked several times to provide some guidance as to how they could approach their education & learning practice in a more contemporary manner – integrating the elements of contemporary practice as I developed. I have conducted several professional development sessions for a specific discipline, and as well conducted my own small research project (see Reflecting on my educational practice Page 2016d), and then shared my findings to all academics at a staff meeting.
However, for the predominant number of creative practitioners who are now aspiring education & learning practitioners, this did not appear to be sufficient. I therefore considered options I had, and chose to adapt a holistic approach to education & learning practice I had from several decades ago, and include several elements of my Praxis v9k – self, motive (values & beliefs), decision to investigate, reflective practice and reflexive practice (Page 2017e).

DLP DCI Praxis v9i.20170420.P1.png

Figure I – Project 1 Research Study Developed Praxis v9k (Page 2017e)
The result is this generic Holistic Approach to Practice (2017d) – an outline of the steps or considerations tI take in preparing for every education & learning practice session I engage in.  Whilst it is not the purpose of explaining the detail of this approach in this blog post (see Research Practitioner Pt19 for more detail), I felt it had merit mentioning my approach. Perhaps it could be useful in reminding aspiring practitioners – those who is aspiring to realising 10,000 hours of practice – of the process that they may use when planning for the education & learning practice sessions they are about to engage in.
A Visual Representation of My Holistic Approach to Practice.20170521.v3Y(Page 2017d)

In Summary

This brief post has attempted to outline the need – if you aspire to becoming a professional practitioner in industry – of the need for you as a practitioner to:
  • be a resourceful self-learner;
  • be a reflective practitioner – consciously, deliberately and systematically
  • be a reflexive practitioner – consciously, deliberately and systematically, to develop your practice
  • be proactive in practice – focussed and passionate
“10,000 hours: 40 hours per week, 48 weeks a year, for 5.2 years of practice, doing. Experiencing, observing, reflecting, considering, deciding, and developing ones’ practice. 10,000 being a practitioner, in order to develop to a level that of a professional practitioner” (Page 2017a).

In Closing

As a supplementary measure, I have also embedded the following instructional you-tube – by Bosler and Greene (2017) “How to practice effectively…for just about anything”. I found that such a resource is excellent to use as motivation for aspiring practitioners – irrespective of their discipline. Whilst it is very focussed on music practitioners, this presentation holds universal truths for effective practice that can be applied I believe, to any practice situation.
Bosler and Greene (2017) “How to practice effectively…for just about anything”
This blog series is planned to continue with another in the series of education & learning.
References
Billett, Stephen. 2001. Learning in the workplace: strategies for effective practice. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Bosler, Annie and Greene, Don (2017) “How to practice effectively…for just about anything”.   Accessed 28th February 2017
Brookfield, Stephen D. 2002. “Using the lenses of critically reflective teaching in the community college classroom.” New Directions for Community Colleges 2002 (118): 31-38.
Burgess, Richard James. 2013. The art of music production: the theory and practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ericsson, K.A., Krampe, R.T. and Tesch-Römer, C., 1993. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological review100(3), p.363.
Frith, Simon. 1992. The industrialization of popular music. Popular Music and Communication 2: 49-74.
Hague, Graeme. 2010. “Recording and production: make and record music now.” Guerilla Guide (29): 131. Accessed May 16, 2015.
Hargreaves, DJ, D Miell and RAR MacDonald. 2002. What are musical identities, and why are they important? In Musical Identities, edited by RAR MacDonald, DJ Hargreaves and D Miell, 1-20. Oxford Oxford University Press.
Learning image courtesy of: Pedagogy vs Andragogy chart Accessed 28th February 2017
Lynda.com. 2017. Lynda.com   Accessed 28th February 2017
McKee, Alan. 2003. Textual analysis: a beginner’s guide. London: Sage.
Page, David L. 2017a. Quote by David L Page in practice.  Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2017b. Linked-in Professional Profile.  Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2017c. Research Practitioner Part 16  Accessed 28th February 2017
Page, David L. 2017d. Generic Holistic Approach to Practice.  Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2017e. Research Practitioner Part 18/Charter of Values & Beliefs v3  Accessed 21st April 2017
Page, David L. 2016a. David L Page  Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2016b. Memory- Introduction.  Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2016c.  Charter of Values and Beliefs v2.  Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2016d Reflecting on my educational practice  Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2016e Charter of Values & Beliefs v1   Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2015a. History of Music Production Part 4  Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2015b. Research Practitioner Part 1 Accessed 28th February 2017.
Page, David L. 2015c. Music Practitioner Part 3 Reflective Practitioner Accessed 28th February 2017
Page, David L. 2015d. Educational Philosophy Part 2 Accessed 28th February 2017
Page, David L. 2015e. “Contemporary DIY music production practice, and the implications for effective practice” Doctoral research study KKP623 Contextual Review submission. Personal collection.  Accessed 18th February 2017
Page, David L. 2015f. Music Practitioner Part 5 Accessed 28th February 2017
Page, David L. 2015g. Critical Listening Part 1 Accessed 28th February 2017
Page, David L. 2013. Introduction to Audio Engineering Accessed 28th February 2017
Page, David L. 2012. Industry Outline Accessed 28th February 2017
Page, David L. 2004. Educational Philosophy Part 1 Accessed 28th February 2017
Pensado’s Place. 2017.  Pensado’s Place  Accessed 28th February 2017
Roth, Robert A. 1989. “Preparing the reflective practitioner: transforming the apprentice through the dialectic.” Journal of Teacher Education 40 (2): 31-35.
Schön, Donald A. 1983. The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. Aldershot, England: Arena.
Théberge, Paul. 1997. Any sound you can make: making music/consuming technology. Hanover: University Press of New England.
Bibliography
Armstrong, Thomas. 1999. 7 Kinds of Smart: Identifying and Developing Your Multiple Intelligences. New York: Plume Books.
Boud, David, Rosemary Keogh and David Walker. 2013. Reflection: turning experience into learning. New York: Routledge.
Bradbury, Helen, Nick Frost, Sue Kilminster and Miriam Zukus. 2010. Beyond reflective practice: new approaches to professional lifelong learning. New York: Routledge.
Brookfield, Stephen D. 2006. The skillful teacher: on technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom. 2 ed. San Francisco: The Jossey Bass.
Brookfield, Stephen D. 1995. Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey Bass
Brookfield, Stephen. 1986. Understanding and facilitating adult learning: A comprehensive analysis of principles and effective practices. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Covey, Stephen R. 2013. The 8th habit: From effectiveness to greatness. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Covey, Stephen R. 1991. Principle centered leadership. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Covey, Stephen R. 1989. The 7 habits of highly effective people. Melbourne: The Business Library.
Entwistle, Noel and Paul Ramsden. 1983. Understanding Student Learning. New York: Routledge Revivals.
Gardner, Howard and Thomas Hatch. 1989. “Multiple Intelligences go to school: educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences.” Educational researcher 18 (8): 4-10.
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences image courtesy of:  Gardners’ MI   Accessed 28th March 2015
Griffiths, Morweena. 2010. “Research and the self.” In The Routledge companion to research in the arts, edited by M Biggs and H Karlsson, 167-185. London: Routledge.
Haseman, B 2015. “Forensic reflective practice: effecting personal and systemic change.” Accessed May 24, 2015. https://blackboard.qut.edu.au/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_118711_1&content_id=_5744651_1.
Knowles, Malcolm S, Elwood F Holton III and Richard A Swanson. 2012. The adult learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. 7 ed. New York: Routledge.
Lawrence-Wilkes, L. & Chapman, A. 2015. Reflective Practice. Accessed March 28th, 2015 http://www.businessballs.com/reflective-practice.htm
Light, Greg, Susanna Calkins and Roy Cox. 2009. Learning and teaching in higher education: the reflective professional. London: Sage.
Merriam, Sharan B. 2001. “Andragogy and self‐directed learning: Pillars of adult learning theory.” New directions for adult and continuing education 2001 (89): 3-14.
Page, David L. 2014a Doctoral Research Study Part 2  Accessed 30th April 2017
Page, David L. 2014b Doctoral Research Study Part 1  Accessed 30th April 2017
Pascal, J., & Thompson, N. 2012. Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice, 13(2), 311. doi: 10.1080/14623943.2012.657795
Roth, Robert. 1989. “Preparing the reflective practitioner: transforming the apprentice through the dialectic“. Journal of Teacher Education 40 (2): 31-35
Ryan, Mary Elizabeth. 2014. Reflective practice in the arts. In Literacy in the Arts, edited by G Barton, 77-90. London: Springer.
SAE Institute, 2015 SAE Institute Accessed 28th March 2015
Schön, Donald A. 1987. Educating the Reflective Practitioner, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 355 + xvii pages.
Schön, Donald A. 1983. The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. Aldershot, England: Arena.
– ©David L Page 28/02//2017
– updated @David L Page 30/04/2017
Copyright: No aspect of the content of this blog or blog site is to be reprinted or used within any practice without strict permission directly from David L Page.

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Reflecting on my Education & Learning Practice

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Reflecting on 16T2 – the findings of this reflection, and what actions I have done as a result

Note: an abbreviated version of this blog is available as a powerpoint presentation. 
It is currently the week following SAE Institute’s Trimester two (16T2) grading fortnight. I am clearing my desk and organising my electronic folders of the last fifteen weeks of teaching resources and administration, and saving required items to the post-Trimester folder. Whilst I am in this process, I find myself reflecting on the Trimester in terms of:
  • the results students within my modules had achieved;
  • my perception of their learning experience within those modules;
  • my interactions with those students throughout the Trimester – their behaviours, comments and any feedback I received;
  • the resources I had provided them, and;
  • my education and learning approach – what approach I had taken, what I felt went well, and what with hindsight I would change if I had another opportunity.
16T2 was a particularly challenging Trimester for a number of reasons, and my thoughts were now on my preparation for another Trimester – 16T3 – due to start next week.  In 16T3 I will again teach on three of the same modules, two of which I also coordinate (administer and am fully responsible for) – a Trimester two (2) module Production I, and a Trimester five (5) module Final Project.
In 16T2 both of these modules were populated with February intake students: 15T1 and 16T1. The February intake at SAE Institute is largely made up of school leavers, having graduated their Australian high school in the proceeding November, made decisions regarding their immediate tertiary study choices, and been accepted into those respective undergraduate degree programs. Whilst there are usually a few other students within this cohort who have had some life experience since graduating school, I have observed that the February intake usually has considerably less mature age students than the other two (2) yearly intakes of May and September.

Professional Development Program

As a Senior Lecturer for the global Creative Media Institute, SAE Institute I am required to engage in their internal professional development program. A minimum requirement is to undertake three online programs per year. The topic selection is from a range of disciplines such as soft skills, education, supervision, management and compliance. These MaxKnowledge courses take approximately four (4) hours to complete, and are assessed progressively throughout the program, as well as upon its’ completion. Given I had not yet completed any courses, I decide to do these as part of my unwinding of one Trimester, and preparing for the next. Looking through the large list of course options, I highlighted a good number of potential topics.  The two courses I finally decided upon were ED117 Teaching Gen Y Students; and EDN112 Influencing Student Motivation. The reason I chose these two particular topics of the many topics available were two-fold:
  • I often observe peer Lecturer’s getting frustrated with certain cohorts of students for demonstration of qualities and characteristics that I believe could in part be examples of generational gaps;
  • As a mature Senior Lecturer in a Creative Media Institute a large portion of the students I interact with either school leavers or recent school leavers. Born approximately two decades earlier, they are from Generation Y – the Millennials. Whilst I believe I have maintained currency with contemporary educational practice including learning theory [Educational Philosophy – Part 1],  following my particularly difficult 16T2 Trimester with two groups of students with an approach to life, learning and engagement, that was at times at odds with my expectations of tertiary level study; I decided it could not hurt to hear another point of view regarding one of our Institute’s primary learner groups.

gen-x

General Characteristics Generation X

As outlined in Educational Philosophy – Part 2, I was born into Generation X (Gen X), the son of two parents of the previous generation, Baby Boomers. In Australia at that time, the resources boom was at its height, providing great levels of economic growth, and surplus levels of disposable income.  Many Baby Boomer parents took advantage of riding this wave of opportunity, especially as many of them had grown up as children in the previous veteran generation where they had experienced war or post-war economic hardship.  The result of working long hours for economic gain, was that in general Baby Boomer parents had less time for their families and children’s lives.
Simultaneously, technology was developing rapidly including space travel, telecommunications, computer technology and media. Social and cultural norms started to change with people questioning their values and beliefs – particularly the youth – motivated by political decisions that affected everyday citizens. Ongoing participation in the Vietnam war was protested in most developed nations, with popular artists and musicians using their popularity to express their anti-establishment views, and alternative life philosophies – be it drug-culture or alternative Eastern religious views. Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, The Beatles, Jimi Hendrix used the popular cultural stage to express their art in influential ways to the global youth market. All of these events influenced Generation X  (MaxKnowledge 2016).
Gen Xers grew up to become self-reliant, due to often having absent parents with either organisational or social commitments. Gen Xers therefore learnt that for something to be done, they had to do it for themselves. I recall many a times when my parents were away on business trips for a week, and my siblings were looked after by a live in carer, or as we got older, fended for ourselves. Because of this I became quite independent, in my choices of interests and thought processes. I also noted that I was shy to request assistance, a trait that according to MaxKnowledge is inherent with Gen Xers (MaxKnowledge 2016).
As a result of my upbringing, I have consciously sought balance of lifestyle and work in my adulthood. I like flexibility, and work well in non-traditional structures and times. Whilst I ensure I meet my responsibilities and accountabilities, where and when I actually do this work is less of a priority. Such work needs to be balanced around my family commitments. I have developed strong connections with my family – both my direct and my extended family. Whilst I have not been blessed with my own children, I have a god-daughter and nephew who I provide much attention and guidance to. It is also not coincidental that I have chosen careers across a range of industries which has allowed me to guide and mentor younger people in their education and learning. In many ways, this path has allowed me to address an aspect that I recognised was missing within my development – support, guidance and advice. I am comfortable with and quite technically proficient given my experience with the broad and rapid change of technology within my lifetime.

gen-y

General Characteristics Generation Y

In contrast to Generation Xers, Generation Ys (Gen Ys), have in general been raised by Gen Xers. Gene Xers have tried to correct history by providing total attention to their Gen Y kids, in many ways making up for the lack of parenting they received as children to their baby boomer parents. No question was too small or unworthy.  Due to the attention provided by their Gen X parents, Gen Yers have grown up in a heavily structured life. Gen Y’s lives have been planned down to the hour in a very busy daily schedule of school, sports, clubs, family and friends’ activities. Gen Yers have been engaged by their Gen X parents in discussing all aspects of their lives – their views, thoughts, feelings including social, cultural and political events. Gen Yers have in general received very tangible guidance and direction. As a result, Gen Yers have become used to receiving  instant feedback in regards to their many activities, thoughts and contemplations. Gen Yers have very high expectations of what they choose to focus on, and yet, do not cope well with outcomes less than their expectations. This is a trait that according to MaxKnowledge is inherent with Gen Yers (MaxKnowledge 2016).
Due to the attention and guidance Gen Yers have received over their lives, along with the social network opportunities for posting comments, photos and videos on line, it is not surprising that Gen Yers are a very ‘me-centric’ generation. They do however like to operate within social groups – family or friends – enabling them for more instant direct feedback from within their groups (MaxKnowledge 2016). Gen Yers have a high level of connectivity – connected at all times to all forms of social media and networks. Gen Yers are at the centre of the ‘like-generation’; following social media and liking people and their social media posts is a Gen Y activity. MaxKnowledge noted that Gen Yers – unlike other generations – did not distinguish between activities at school, home or work (MaxKnowledge 2016). This is very apparent in contemporary learning environments, when a student is usually seen with a mobile device – laptop, mobile phone – within their reach at any time during the class.

reflection

Reflection: what I observed in my 16T2 Production I module

This Trimester two (2) undergraduate Production I module is a group project-based learning module. My aim for the module is to provide an opportunity for the students to apply their developing knowledge from the first seven (7) modules into this particular module group production project. Learning by proposing, receiving feedback, negotiation, exploring, trialling, failing, reflecting, correcting, researching and experimentation. The module is conducted primarily in the learning spaces of both a forty (44) seat theatrette & a number of  audio studios. The weekly module content is very specific to their production projects, guiding the learners in their project-based learning experience. I have observed over the course of five (5) Trimesters coordinating this module, students generally need assistance with their time-management. The 16T2 cohort was no different, with the clarification that they probably had more challenges with their time-management than any proceeding cohorts I have been involved with. I observed that students developed little of the required group production project documentation outside of class, leaving it to the last moment, or being less than the required standard, requiring redrafting post my formal feedback. In general, the standard of their audio session management was poor relative to previous cohorts, especially surprising given that much time was spent on this aspect within another module that I also taught. The final observation I had regarding this cohort in the module was that the students’ expectations of their Production Projects outcome (three songs recorded as a group, and mixed individually) were very high. However, given their (in general) lack of demonstrated competence regarding time management, their lack of development of the required documentation, and their poor attention to detail such as with their session file management, the students completed their production projects very late in the Trimester, leaving less than one (1) full week to attend to one of their largest learning opportunities in that module, their individual mixes. In contrast to some previous cohort who have spent up to four (4) weeks in the individual mixing stage of their productions, having spent less than one week meant that their Final Product were not only going to be less than my expectation; but perhaps more importantly, less than their expectation.

The Art of self-reflection

Reflective practice: could I have done anything differently in my 16T2 Production I module?

Considering my knowledge of a range of education and learning practice theories and approach options, could I have used alternative approaches and methods to that which I did use in the Trimester two (2) Production I module?
Given my understanding of the generational differences, was my approach that more aligned to a cohort of Gen Xers, rather than Gen Yers? Could my approach have been less of a holistic view and more hands-on? Perhaps I could have utilised a more focused education and learning theory and approach such as scaffolded learning? Perhaps I could have provided more opportunity within the learning sessions for the students to develop their project plans, rather than expecting them to develop these outside of class?Perhaps I could have provided more specific focus on having the learners develop their project schedules within the learning sessions with the Gant charts I had provided them as an out-of-class resource? Perhaps more of the learning session time could have been allocated to the development of their data and session management? In 16T2 I initiated weekly group debriefs in front of the group. I had thought it would allow a greater sharing of knowledge and experience amongst the whole cohort. Whilst this may have been useful, perhaps it may have been more useful to break into their production groups, and allowed for more group-based discussions over the class-based based debriefs I had organised? This may have allowed for more specific progress debriefing, reflection, discussion and forward planning. However, logistically this would have meant that I had less time per group, and less comments across all groups. But in terms of learning theory, this may have been more productive in the long run.
In terms of the large groups, perhaps I could have more consciously applied questioning techniques within the group discussions. As discussed in Layer 9: My approach in the learning experience perhaps I could have been more active in using a range of concept checking questions (CCQ), instruction checking questions (ICQ), and in general more focussed questions? In terms of the learners expectations of the level of their Final Product expectations, I am clear I needed to address this in more detail, with more specificity. As trimester two (2) aspiring audio engineer students, their expectations of the standard were unrealistic, and should have been more specifically addressed throughout the trimester. I am unsure as to how much difference this would have made given the particular learner’s personalities and attitudes, but I am confident it would have made some difference within at least several of the learners.  I also acknowledge that I could have been more proactive in changing the learning space to other locations, to allow for more group-based discussion. A lecture theatrette does impede effective education and learning irrespective of the experience of the learning facilitator. I find it is too easy to slip back into a teacher-centred learning approach due to the learning environment and layout. As several of my learners have noted: the theatrette style chairs are very comfortable and very easy to lie back, disengage, and become passive.
I would also consider that by following the department’s request to include more signal flow testing, my approach to this was quite focussed, and this was perhaps not the best approach for this particular Gen Yer group. Having used this approach with other cohorts that included other generations such as Gen Xers has proved successful in the past; but with this particular generational group, in hindsight I think it was too much for me to expect that of them.

The Art of self-reflection

Reflective practice: how I have responded, and what I have implemented in 16T3.

This trimester I have ensured from the outset that I have been more thorough in my pre-assessing phase with the 16T3 trimester two (2) Production I learners. I hadn’t met any of them previously due to me not having contact with any of the trimester one (1) modules in 16T2. Therefore, I needed to get to know each one of them from week 1. Prior to week 1, as per Layer 8: My approach in preparing for learning practice sessions, I gathered their 16T2 trimester one (1) assessment tasks that had relevance to this particular module. I ensured I was extra thorough in perusing their student files (electronic), and talked with their 16T2 learner facilitators for their perspective of each of the learners. In the week 1 introductory learning session I was very deliberate in discussing generational gaps, reviewing the learning styles they had learnt in another trimester one (1) module, and introduce myself in terms of these, as well as my relevant discipline practice experience.
In terms of my approach to the learning session – preparation and delivery – I have adopted this trimester a:
  • Less holistic learning approach, and a more detailed focus on specific content
  • More focused approach using a scaffolded learning approach
  • More in-class work, developing project plans in class. I have provide more specific examples and links to instructional blogs than I have previously.
  • More focus on Gant charts and project schedules. I have provide more specific examples than I have previously.
  • More class tasks specific to data and session management. I have provide more specific examples than I have previously.
  • I have consciously focussed more on providing small production group-based discussions, over whole class-based discussion. That is not to say I have omitted class-based discussion, but more so balanced this with more group-based discussions as well. Whilst it may be too early to tell [as of this update, it is week five (5) of a thirteen (13) week trimester],  following such an approach appears that it may have allowed for more specific progress debriefing, reflection, discussion and forward planning within each of the production project groups.
  • I have more consciously questioned all learners throughout their lecture format, small group discussions and their practical studio sessions, to ensure I am optimising the effective student learning experience of the particular learners during a learning practice session.
  • I have already introduced more open discussion as to the current learning cohort’s expectations of their Final Product expectations, and how to be more realistic with this.
  • I have negotiated with another Lecturer in another module to remove the formal Signal Flow component from my Production I module, but still reinforce the cohort’s development of signal flow within my module’s learning sessions as much as I can. This will leave the formal assessment of this function to another learning facilitator in another of their trimester two (2) modules.
  • I have consciously refocussed the way I use and interact with the learning spaces for this module. I have more consciously changed the learning space to another learning space when I require more discussion. i have done this as often as possible.

What I learnt as a result of undertaking the required professional development, and then from engaging in reflection of my practice experience.

The Art of self-reflection

Reflective practice: reflecting on my education & learning practice last trimester (16T2)?

In summary:
  • I had overlooked the thorough pre-assessment of the learners (Gen Y)
  • I mistakenly expected students to be self-reliant – even though as part of that self-reliance approach I had created and curated an enormous amount of resources for the learners to access outside of class)
  • I overlooked the need for scaffolded tasks for this learner group
  • I possibly reduced my focus on questioning with this group
    • Concept checking questions
    • Instruction checking questions
    • Focused questioning
  • I was accepting of the provided learning space
  • I did not consciously engage reflective practice of my education and learning practice as much as I could have across the Trimester
  • I did not consciously proactively pursue research of my education and learning practice during that trimester. Perhaps due to my current pre-occupation with my Doctorate in Creative Industries, I did made time to maintain my research in education and learning in 16T2.

bending-back-over-myself

Reflexive practice – how have I changed my education & learning practice this trimester (16T3)?

  • I have consciously returned to reading education and learning approaches and practice. I have returned to Millwood’s learning theories chart to review a range of learning theories, approaches and methods; and I have spent time reviewing  recommended higher education education and learning text books such as: 
    • Millwood, Richard. 2013. Learning Theory v6_Millwood.D2.2.1.20130430   Accessed September 14th, 2016
    • Knowles, Malcolm S, Elwood F Holton III and Richard A Swanson. 2012. The adult learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. 7 ed. New York: Routledge.
    • Light, Greg, Susanna Calkins and Roy Cox. 2009. Learning and teaching in higher education: the reflective professional. London: Sage.
  • I have consciously returned to my roots to remind me of my practice. I have a large range of resources and past experience to draw upon, but I needed to re-familiarise my self with my philosophy and approach to education and learning. In order to develop my current understanding of education and learning practice, I have now planned more blog titles in my series, understanding this will assist in keeping engaged and proactive in terms of  developing my self and my practice.
  • I have returned to conscious engagement of reflective practice of my teaching practice. Acknowledging Boud’s (2001) view of the use of journal in reflective practice, I am more consciously and routinely taking notes of my practice. This blog is an example of my formalising many hours of recorded data about my practice over the past six (6) weeks.
  • I no longer accept the limitations of the provided space. I have changed spaces numerous times this trimester to optimise learning opportunities.
  • I have included a more scaffolded learning approach in my learning experiences in 16T3.
  • I have facilitated more small group work opportunities, allowing more individual assessment and engagement
  • I have more consciously included a deliberate focus on questioning
    • Concept checking questions
    • Instruction checking questions
    • Focused questioning

Where to from here, in terms of my education and learning practice, and my research practice?

As outlined in Educational Philosophy – Part 2, an analogy I have of my self and my practice is that of an onion. I as a practitioner, irrespective of my practice, have layers of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and bias. One of my beliefs is that it is up to me as part of my professional practice to embark on a journey to reveal who I am – both in terms of my self, and my practice.
There are two focal points that I choose to inform my practice – the theory generated from the field and discipline, and the methodology of my research practice. The figure below shows the relationship of these two foci with in my music practice (see figure ii below).

my-research-study-project_3-points_no-self-p0

Figure I Page (2015f)

The breadth of contemporary education and learning practice

However, the field of education and learning practice is developing inline with the needs of social and cultural needs. As Light et al (2009) outlined, the landscape of higher education education and learning practice has developed greatly in the past ten (10) years. My role as an education and learning practitioner now includes the functions of:
  • research
  • teaching
  • administration, and
  • student service
 As a professional education and learning practitioner, I am expected to perform diligently and competently across all four (4) areas as part of my professional practice. I am now expected to administer all aspects of learning programs within my responsibility and accountability effectively and efficiently, maintain a conscious eye over the progress and welfare of the learners under my responsibility, and deliver a learning experience in an engaging and verifiable manner (qualitatively and quantifiably).  I have taken figure i (above), and overlain Light et al’s four functions (see figure ii below).
education-learning-practice-20161015-p1
Figure II Page (2016)
Given my experience as a professional educator and learning practitioner over a number of decades, I do however need to consider Light et al’s (2009) use of the functional term student services. I believe that this term is very broad, and therefore could be misunderstood and misinterpreted.  Student services essentially consists of all functions outside of academic functions. The term student services usually includes the functions of the higher education organisational processes of recruiting and enrolling a student, registering them within a program, missing them with a student number, an ID card, an email address, allocating them into a class in order to allocate a timetable, arranging and advertising on student activities, and possibly assisting the learner with arrangement of suitable housing for the duration of their studies. However, a key area of student services that is central to my role as a Senior Lecturer in a Higher Education Institute I am employed here in Brisbane Australia, is specifically that of, pastoral care.
Pastoral care is beyond the range of functions that I have described above, as the term student services implies. Pastoral care includes the oversight of the learners in terms of their general health and welfare. The concept of pastoral care acknowledges that learners need to have balance in their greater life, in order to perform well in education and learning:  in their family life, their social life, and in their mental and physical health. I suppose I could summarise pastoral care as being the oversight of learners in their everyday life to ensure they are in a position to maximise their education and learning advancement. In contemporary higher education practice, with all institutes answerable to government for effective education outcomes – ie pass and/or completion rates – such oversight is ann important aspect of the contemporary education and learning practitioner. , it is a different function to both of these (see figure iii below).

DLP Contemporary Ed + Learning Practice diagram.v2.20180124.png

Figure III Page (2018)

Theories, approaches and methodologies of contemporary education and learning practice

As a professional education and learning practitioner, I know I need to read broadly and be clear on the theories, approaches and methodologies that I can draw on in my daily practice. Millwood’s Learning Theories ‘HoTEL’ (2013) chart (see figure ii above) is an excellent starting point for me to return to and re-familiarise my self in a range of education and learning theories, approaches and methods. It is holistically presented, and comprehensive in detail, easily enabling my further research into theories or approaches as a constantly developing education and learning facilitator.
learning-theory-v6_millwood-d2-2-1-20130430
Figure IV Millwood’s Learning Theories ‘HoTEL’ (2013)
By proactively researching and experimenting within my education and learning practice over time, I have been able to develop my content, information knowledge and skill gained across a wide range of experience in different learning theories and approaches. I accept that my practice is dynamic and in need of constantly revisiting, re-appriasing, and developing.
As outlined in Layer 7: My approach to educational practice I am fundamentally predisposed to a andragogical approach to education and learning practice. However, such an approach does not exclude instances where I consider a pedagogical approach to be more appropriate in order to optimise the effective student learning experience of a particular learner or learners at that time.
andragoigy-vs-pedagogy
Figure V – Pedagogy vs Andragogy Chart (2015)
 In figure v above both of these approaches are laid out in a transparent manner, allowing my self as an education and learning practitioner to consciously choose the most appropriate approach for the specific learning experience. As I have yet to find one theory or approach that that is optimal in every contemporary adult learning practice context, I draw on multiple theories, approaches and methods that I consider to be appropriate in the particular learning context.
future-past

Reflective and Reflexive practice

Following my completion of each of the respective professional development courses I had undertaken, I received the following automated email from MaxKnowledge (2016).
Dear David, Training is ineffective unless the desired behavior, knowledge and skills are transferred to the workplace. Applying what you’ve learned from your training will help you maximize your performance results. Please take a moment to reflect on what you’ve learned and how you intend to apply what you’ve learned in your workplace environment.Yours in learning, MaxKnowledge Support
 This email reminded me as a practitioner, that there is little point in being proactive in professional development research or learning, unless we take the process one step further and reflect upon what we have learnt, considering the possible application to our particular context; and then step two, to then decide for change, and implement that change into our practice. The first step is referred to as reflective practice. The second step – that of implementation –  is referred to as reflexive practice.
rp-advantages-2016o910
Figure VI – Reflective Practices Summary (Anderson et al 2015)
Reflective practice
Lawrence-Wilkes and Chapman (2015) notes the importance of reflective practice for practitioners in their development “by enabling insight and assisting learning for new understanding, knowledge and action” (see figure iv above). There is much written of the benefits of reflective practice, along with many models for practitioners to engage in Reflective Practice.
Reflective Practice Cycle_Gibbs.1988
Gibb’s (1988) model is perhaps one of the best known, cited in numerous texts and websites globally (see above).  It is a relatively straight forward model for aspiring reflective practitioners to guide themselves through the six (6) step process by asking six (6) questions:
  1. Description – what happened?
  2. Feelings – what were you thinking and feeling?
  3. Evaluations – what was good and bad about the experience?
  4. Analysis – what sense can you make of the the situation?
  5. Conclusion – what else could you have done?
  6. If it arose again, what would you do?

rp_brookfield-20160910

Figure VII – Reflective Practices Summary (Anderson et al 2015)
However, perhaps a more applicable model for education and learning practitioners is that of Brookfield (1995). Brookfield’s model asserts that as an education and learning practitioner and reflective practitioner, one needs to broadly and thoroughly gather data from a number of sources in order to gain a truly balanced perspective of the practice being studied. Brookfield outlines four (4) ways a practitioner can gain perspective regarding their practice (see figure v above) – through what he refers to as four (4) lenses:
  1. a lens of their own eyes;
  2. a lens of their learner’s eyes;
  3. a lens of one of their peers – referred to as a critical friend – and;
  4. a lens of their field or discipline – through literature
I will note that in my diverse education and learning practice, I have applied Brookfield’s approach over many years. I have found one of the most significant lenses to be that of number three (3), critical friend; interacting with peers who are engaged and proactive in their development of their education and learning practice. Irrespective of such interaction being informally in faculty staffrooms, and formally as an organised de-briefing session, I trust such engagement has provided me opportunities to enhance my “professional practice and my self-development by enabling insight and assisting learning for new understanding, knowledge and action” (Lawrence-Wilkes and Chapman 2015).  I am grateful to those fellow practitioners and for those opportunities over the course of my professional life.

forensic-reflective-practice_haseman

Figure VIII – Reflective Practices Summary (Anderson et al 2015)

Reflexive practice

Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, Reflexive Practice. Reflexive Practice is the process of developing my practice based on my gathering of, and analysis of the data from my research into my practice (ie: from my reflective practice). Haseman (2015) proposes that for reflective practice to be of a robust and valid form, the reflective practice must necessarily include the two steps of reflective and reflexive practice. Forensic Reflective Practice demands that the practice is (see figure vi above):
  1. Reflexive , as well as Reflective Practice;
  2. Include all three dimensions of practice in the research: the field, the site of the practice, and the actual practitioner them self (inclusive of their experience, background, paradigms, values, beliefs and bias), and;
  3. that the practice of reflection and reflexive practice is not by accident. It is a deliberate practice that is scheduled regularly and routinely into one’s practice.
Given my approach to practice [see Layer 5: My approach to all forms of practice], I am of the belief that there is little point in being proactive in professional practice, without engaging in professional development research or learning. Further, having engaged in professional development research or learning, I need to take the process one step further and reflect upon what I have learnt, consider the possible application to the particular context I am engaged in; and to then decide for change, and to implement that change into my practice. Yes, being proactive in professional practice, means engaging in professional development research – that of reflective and reflexive practice.
I trust this blog has outlined an example of my engaging in professional development research practice with regard to my education and learning practice. I hope to have illuminated my experience as both a education and learning practitioner, and a research practitioner over the past six (6) weeks. As a result of this exercise, I am reminded of the value of professional practice, and the need to maintain currency of that practice, irrespective of how much experience one has. I am reminded that to be able to conduct one self at a professional level, there are certain disciplines that I need to maintain. Ongoing development of my education and learning practice is one; and ongoing research practice is another. Life is dynamic, and therefore I accept that as a professional practitioner I also need to be dynamic – proactive and engaged in the development of all forms of my practice. Listed below are some of the resources that I have embraced over the course of this experience. Perhaps others may similarly find these to be useful in their journeys of ongoing development of their education and learning practice; and their ongoing research practice. Irrespective of the field or discipline they may practice within, I wish fellow practitioners well in their journeys.

Generational Understanding

Understanding Millennials

Education and Learning Practice

Educational Philosophy Part 3a
Educational Philosophy Part 3b
Educational Philosophy Part 3c

Reflective and Reflexive Practice

Music Practitioner Part 3 Reflective Practice
References
Anderson, C, Carolyn Carattini, Heather Clarke, Gail Hewton, David Page 2015 QUT KKP623 Reflective Practice in Action Group Presentation submission  Accessed September 14th, 2016
Boud, David. 2001. “Using journal writing to enhance reflective practice.” New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 2001 (90): 9-18. doi: 10.1002/ace.16.
Brookfield, Stephen D. 1995. Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey Bass
Fisher, Douglas and Nancy Frey. 2007. Checking for understanding: formative assessment techniques for your classroom. New York: ASCD.
Future Past image courtesy of: Future Past Lanes  Accessed 14th September, 2016
Generation X image courtesy of: Generation X  Accessed 14th September, 2016
Generation Y image courtesy of: Generation Y  Accessed 14th September, 2016
Gibbs, Graham. 1988. Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. New York: FEU.
Gibbs’ Reflective cycle image courtesy of: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/543739354987865666  Accessed 5th June, 2015
Haseman, B. 2015. Forensic reflective practice: effecting personal and systemic change. Accessed 14th September, 2016. https://blackboard.qut.edu.au/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_118711_1&content_id=_5744651_1.
Lawrence-Wilkes, L. & Chapman, A. 2015. Reflective Practice. Accessed 14th September, 2016 http://www.businessballs.com/reflective-practice.htm
Light, Greg, Susanna Calkins and Roy Cox. 2009. Learning and teaching in higher education: the reflective professional. London: Sage.
Man Bending Back Over Himself  image courtesy of: Bending Back Over  Accessed 14th September, 2016
MaxKnowledge. 2016. ED117 Teaching Gen Y Students Course. http://www.careercollegelounge.com Accessed 14th September, 2016 2016
Millwood, Richard. 2013. Learning Theory v6_Millwood.D2.2.1.20130430  Accessed 14th September, 2016
Onion image courtesy of: Onion Layers Accessed 14th September, 2016
Page, David L. 2018. Figure III image courtesy of:  David L Page, adapting Light and Cox 2009 (see above)  Accessed 24th January, 2018
Page, David L. 2016 Figure II image courtesy of: David L Page  Accessed 24th January, 2018
Page, David L. 2015a. Educational Philosophy Part 2  Accessed 14th September, 2016
Page, David L. 2015b. Educational Philosophy Part 3a  Accessed 14th September, 2016
Page, David L. 2015c. Educational Philosophy Part 3b  Accessed 14th September, 2016
Page, David L. 2015d. Educational Philosophy Part 3c Accessed 14th September, 2016
Page, David L. 2015e. Music Practitioner Part 3 Reflective Practice Accessed September 14th, 2016
Page, David L 2015f. Figure I image courtesy of Research Practitioner Part 2 Accessed 14th September, 2016
Page, David L. 2004. Educational Philosophy Part 1  Accessed September 14th, 2016
Pedagogy versus Andragogy chart courtesy of: Pedagogy vs Andragogy chart  Accessed 14th September, 2016
Reflection image courtesy of: Reflection  Accessed 14th September, 2016
SAE Qantm image courtesy of: SAE Institute  Accessed 14th September, 2016
Self reflection image courtesy of: Self-reflection-for-personal-growth  Accessed 14th September, 2016
– ©David L Page 15/09/2016
– updated ©David L Page 19/10/2016
– updated ©David L Page 24/01/2018
Copyright: No aspect of the content of this blog or blog site is to be reprinted or used within any practice without strict permission directly from David L Page.

Doctoral Pilot Study – Part 2c

My journey continues….

~DLP Pro Image Fun 5b small.20141020

(Page 2014)
This blog is a continuation of a series. See here (Page 2016a) for the previous blog.

Year 2016: 5th Observation Part c

Whilst I was making headway with the development of my music praxis – significant headway in my opinion – , my actual production plan still did not have the degree of clarity I had hoped for after four (4) weeks. I therefore decided to go through each step of my Praxis v5a in terms of my production process, deliberately and systematically.
DLP DCI Praxis v5a.20160131.P2
Figure I – Praxis v5a (Page 2016b)
In following this process I made my 5th Observation.
5th Observation.P5e.renamed.png
Figure II – 5th Observation (Page 2017)

Practice….20171230.P2b

Practice

Of the five (5) stages of practice, I was in the first stage of creative practice: the creative stage.
  1. Creative Stage
  2. Pre-production Stage
  3. Production Stage
  4. Post-Production Stage
  5. Distribution Stage
 In the creative stage, I brainstormed a number of Project 1 creative ideas based on my project brief. The five (5) track EP was to be representative of some aspect of my life: past, present or future envisioning.
Site
The next element listed in my Praxis 5a was site.
“Listening to the making of ‘Dark Side of the Moon’ (with Alan Parsons as engineer), I ponder…. Unlike so many US bands of the time whose core attraction was the live performance, Pink Floyd and other British bands I was predominantly listening to and influenced by, effectively used the studio as their stage” (Page 2016c; Gallagher 2012; Price 2015; Ryan & Kehew 2006)
For me, I had always been a performer. In the tradition of US bands, my core expression was on stage in a live performance. I had recorded specific music styles that I knew could translate easily to the live sound context – the stage in a venue. However, the musical style I was focussing on here – psychedelic rock – clearly had demands for different types of technology required.
Psychadelic Rock image_Ultimate Guitar.com
The music style I was pursuing was inspired by British-based psychedelic rock artists of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. The site of these performances were in the studio, and therefore each of these creations were done with the aid of studio-based technologies.
Technologies
In order for me as an artist/performer to be able replicate and reproduce the range of studio-created music and sonic tones, I was going to need access to these devices. I pondered: how was this to be done in the production process effectively and efficiently?
I had at this time access to an elaborate range of virtual technologies third (3rd) party plug-in instruments and processors. These included replications of many analogue devices of the particular production era I was focussed on – late 1960’s and early 1970’s – , including instruments such as synthesisers; and audio processors in the three categories of spectral, dynamic and time-domain.
DP PT compatible Plug-ins by Manufacturer.20160215.P1.png
Figure III – 3rd Party Plug-Ins by Manufacturer (Page 2016d)
Whilst I had access to some of the more notable manufacturers such as Eventide, Lexicon and SSL; along with access to a broad range of more recent notable manufacturers such as AIR Music Technology, Antares Audio Technologies, Avid, East West, IK Multimedia, Massey Plugins Inc, Native Instruments, PSP Audioware, Sonixvox, Sonnox, SoundToys, XILS-Labs and iZotope; I wondered  whether the virtual technology replications were going to allow me the dense layering of the textures required for the psychedelic music style. Analogue processing devices were well regarded for their warmth of tone and range of sonics, with music recorded with such equipment often characterised with aesthetically pleasing device-induced distortion, hum and other noise associated with imperfect analogue devices [1].
Technology – Stage versus Studio
Of the technology I could readily access – contemporary equipment of analogue, digital or digital virtual devices – either within my studio, at either the SAE Institute studios (as a full-time Senior Lecturer), or at the QUT studios (as a post-graduate research student) what was going to assist me in this process? My mind wandered considering many options.
My performance live rig was quite elaborate for its function to reproduce typical guitar-based rock music. With other floor-based – analogue and digital – devices, and a broad range of analogue guitar amplifiers, my live rig setup was flexible. With a range of – mostly digital – dynamic, spectral and time-based processors, I could reproduce and sculpt just about any music and sonic tone to reproduce just about any contemporary organic rock-type sound in a performance situation, on stage. In addition, I also have a range of guitar emulators – such as the Fractal Axe-FXII – that allowed me to bypass the use of any guitar amplifiers, and go directly into a venue’s PA system, exponentially expanding the music and sonic palette I could access.

Live rig_20160131.jpg

Figure IV – Live rig (Page 2016e)
However, psychedelic rock music was more complex, with multiple textures and layers that occurred often simultaneously. Was my rig in its current form going to be sufficient? Whats more, if I did create psychedelic-based music in my studio – with multiple textures and layers – using my wide range of digital virtual devices complex, how could I effectively and efficiently reproduce these in a live performance context? Perhaps I needed to develop my current studio technology, expanding my current quite limited studio rig of outboard processors.

Studio rig_20160131.jpg

Figure V – Studio rig (Page 2016f)
I needed to research and consider pieces of equipment that will complement what I currently have, and what I need to fuse my performance and recording of my craft, avoiding a valley or void between the two very important aspects of my music-making practice…..  two aspects that have not met before: stage and studio equipment. I decided that what I didn’t want to do was, was create a studio album that I could not then easily replicate in a live performance. I had always been a performer, and to be able to perform congruently to my recording was a major motivator for me as an artist.
I was clearly invested in this pre-production stage of the music-making process. I needed to consider how I was going to approach the production and what equipment I would use for best effect. It was obvious to me how necessary it was for me to continue to immerse my self in two ways: the sourcing of more textural artifacts discussing the recording techniques in that era (books – The Beatles, Pink Floyd, articles on Molly Meldrum, etc); and also researching a range of equipment that I acquire, that would supplement the equipment I already had, that could more effectively replicate the sounds of psychedelic rock, that I could add to my performance rig. Yes, I desired a rig that I could effectively roll from my studio, onto a stage; and once that performance was complete, to then roll the same rig from the stage, back into the studio. It was my goal to be able to replicate all aspects of my musical and sonic creations in any of my performance locations – on stage, or in a studio.
onion-layers
Footnotes
[1] There are countless testimonies heralding the desired qualities and characteristics of analogue devices across decades of music and sound equipment, and cultural production reviews. However, three more recent acclaimed cultural productions detailing the historical significance of such devices and production workflows are: Ryan & Kehew’s 2006 book “Recording the Beatles: the studio equipment and techniques used to create their classic albums”; Guggenheim’s 2009 “It Might Get Loud” starring Led Zeppelin’s Jimmy Page, U2’s The Edge and The White Stripes’ Jack White; and Grohl, Monroe and Young’s 2013 documentary “Sound City” about a Los Angeles studio during the 1970’s and 1980’s where a number of East Coast artists had hits with records recorded and produced at the facility. These artists included Buckingham and Nicks, Rick Springfield, Fleetwood Mac, and Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers.
onion-layers
This blog series is planned to continue next month with Doctoral Pilot Study Part 3a (Page 2016g). It is intended for this blog series to continue on a regular basis as I progress through my doctoral research project.
References
Gallagher, Mitch. 2012. “Studio legends: Alan Parsons on “Dark Side of the Moon”. Accessed 4th February, 2016. http://www.premierguitar.com/articles/Studio_Legends_Alan_Parsons_on_Dark_Side_of_the_Moon.
Grohl, Dave, Mark Monroe and Neil Young. 2013. Sound city. Sony Music Entertainment. DVD.
Guggenheim, Davis. 2009. It might get loud. Sony Pictures Classics. DVD.
Onion image courtesy of: Onion Layers Accessed 15th December, 2014
Page, David L. 2017. Figure II – 5th Observation image courtesy of David L Page Created 10th June, 2017
Page, David L. 2016g. Doctoral Pilot Study – Part 3a Accessed 5th March, 2016
Page, David L. 2016e. Figure V – Studio rig image courtesy of David L Page. Accessed 29th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2016e. Figure IV – Live rig image courtesy of David L Page. Accessed 29th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2016d. Figure III – 3rd Party Plug-Ins by Manufacturer image courtesy of David L Page. Created 29th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2016c. Doctoral Pilot Study iNotes Accessed 29th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2016b. Figure I – Praxis v5a image courtesy of David L Page. Created 31st January, 2016
Page, David L. 2016a. Doctoral Pilot Study – Part 2b Accessed 17th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2014 image courtesy of David L Page Created 15th December, 2014
Practice image courtesy of David L Page Accessed 4th February, 2016
Price, Andy. 2015. “The Making of Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon.” Article. Accessed Feb 4 2016. http://www.musictech.net/2015/06/landmark-productions-pink-floyd-the-dark-side-of-the-moon.
Psychedelic Rock image courtesy of Ultimate Guitar.com  Accessed 5th February 2016
Ryan, Kevin and Brian Kehew. 2006. Recording the Beatles: the studio equipment and techniques used to create their classic albums. London: Curvebender.
– @David L Page 29/02/2016
– updated @David L Page 05/03/2016
– updated @David L Page 10/06/2017
Copyright: No aspect of the content of this blog or blog site is to be reprinted or used within any practice without strict permission directly from David L Page.

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Doctoral Pilot Study – Part 2b

My journey continues….

~DLP Pro Image Fun 5b small.20141020

(Page 2014)
This blog is a continuation of a series. See here (Page 2016a) for the previous blog.

Year 2016: 5th Observation Part b

Whilst I was making headway with the development of my music praxis – significant headway in my opinion – , my actual production plan still did not have the degree of clarity I had hoped for after four (4) weeks. I therefore decided to go through each step of my Praxis v5a in terms of my production process, deliberately and systematically.
DLP DCI Praxis v5a.20160131.P2
Figure I – Praxis v5a (Page 2016b)
In following this process I made my 5th Observation.
5th Observation.P5e.renamed
Figure II – 5th Observation (Page 2017)
 Practice….20171230.P2b

Practice

Of the five (5) stages of practice, I was in the first stage of creative practice: the creative stage.
  1. Creative Stage
  2. Pre-production Stage
  3. Production Stage
  4. Post-Production Stage
  5. Distribution Stage
 In the creative stage, I brainstormed a number of Project 1 creative ideas based on my project brief. The five (5) track EP was to be representative of some aspect of my life: past, present or future envisioning.
Musical style
The next element listed in my Praxis 5a was musical style. I reflected on what styles of music I had and hadn’t engaged in over the course of my life. I referred to my music influences chart (as introduced in a previous blog) to reflect on these. One musical style of passion that I had never attempted, was psychedelic rock. I decided I needed to explore this style more than I had done previously.
Psychadelic Rock image_Ultimate Guitar.com.png
Psychedelic Rock
Bands such as the Beatles, The Beach Boys, The Who, Pink Floyd, King Crimson and Jimi Hendrix – to name a few very successful artists – experimented with recording and production techniques during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s (Moore 2012). Technology was developing exponentially (large format consoles and analogue hardware devices); there was a US-citizen generated global social movement (aka the peace movement) protesting the allied forces involvement in the Vietnam war; and it became quite common practice amongst the youth, and their icons – artists and musicians – to engage in recreational drug taking (typically, marijuana and hallucinogenics such as LSD) (Théberge 2012; Théberge 1997; Lewisohn 2010). I knew from my years of listening – firstly, holistically as a fan, and then more from an analytical and critical listening[1] point of view as my interest in both music and audio developed (Moylan 2007, pp73-81; Vella and Arthurs 2003, 30; Everest 2007; Corey 2010), psychedelic rock used musical forms and audio processing in distinctly different ways to folk and pop songs.
“Monotonic songs were becoming increasingly popular in those early, heady days of psychedelia; I suppose they were meant to be listened to while you were stoned, or tripping. To my mind, that was really the only way they could be appreciated” (Emerick & Massey 2007, 8).
Psychedelic rock was innovative in the era. In addition to the simple musical form, psychedelic rock relied on analogue processing devices and experimental techniques, using new pieces of equipment, and existing equipment in ways they weren’t necessarily originally designed by the manufacturers to be used (Ryan & Kehew 2006; Moore 2012, 143). Such experiments were often the result of pure creativity as was the case with many artists of the era. For example, Peter Townsend in the creation of “Baba O’Riley” (The Who 1971) [2]. Townsend used a new technological device – a sequencer – to develop a hypnotic rhythmic pattern that was stylistically congruent with the genre of psychedelic music. However, more inventive creative practice included use of pre-recorded tape, spliced together in altered ways for interesting effect, slowed down to half speed, or sped up to sometimes double speed, reversed; or with multiple tape players connected in series, or multiple heads placed on the one tape player, in order to create experimental and ambient sonic and musical characteristics (The Who 2007; Lewisohn & McCartney 2005, Ryan & Kehew 2006).
My musical influences
Having developed my musical influences as noted in an earlier blog, I scoured over the chart, and highlighted three particular artist names who ventured into what I considered to be psychedelic rock:
  • The Beatles
  • Pink Floyd, and a lesser known artist around a similar era in Australia,
  • Russell Morris[3]
Early Beatle influences were the three albums, 1966’s “Revolver” (The Beatles 1966) [4], 1967’s “Sargent Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” (The Beatles 1967) [5], and 1968’s “White Album” (The Beatles 1968) [6].
The first of the these albums “Revolver” had one song on it which has become known as a significant turning point for the Beatles:
“Tomorrow Never Knows” [7] was a total departure from anything the Beatles had attempted before. The song consists of three main elements: the hypnotic, riveting ostinato of Ringo Starr’s drums, coupled with the bass, unchanging throughout the entire song; a well-selected assortment of tape loops fed to the faders of a mixing console; and John Lennon’s vocal” (Moorefield 2005, 30).
Having almost exhausted themselves with the hectic touring schedule they had maintained over a number of years, the Beatles were in the process of making a conscious decision to do more in the studio. The band and its management believed they were now positioned to maintain their global popularity through album sales alone, without the necessity to tour and perform (Lewisohn 2010; Everett 1999, Ryan & Kehew 2006, 410). The artists therefore were to have more time in the studios, became more involved in the productions, and “experimented with abandon” (Moorefield 2005, 29). In the case of the Beatles, often the inventive creative practice occurred as a result of a directive by the artist of the producer to achieve a sound they could hear in their heads, but unsure of how they could achieve it with the available technology:
“But my musical tastes didn’t matter here: my job was to give the artist and producer the kinds of sounds they wanted. So my ears perked up when I heard John’s final direction to George “….and I want my voice to sound like the Dalai Lama chanting from a mountaintop, miles away” (Emerick & Massey 2007, 8)[8]
Another major influence on my self was Pink Floyd. My brother was older, and as such had been quite strongly influenced by the social movements. He bought a number of their albums over the previous decade, at an age when I was still developing my musical ear. Pink Floyd produced many albums that I have since listened to – either directly in my household, or via friend’s. However, the most significant album for me remains 1973’s “Dark Side of the Moon”[9].
Dark Side of the Moon_Pink Floyd.1973
“I recall many nights, laying on my beanbag in my downstairs bedroom, door shut, overhead room lights off. Some small desk lamps in the corners – complete with coloured cellophane.
My gramophone player was on, and I embarked on a journey….
I gave in to the moment, closed my eyes, and allowed my self to be transported to the unknown….
I was wandering, no idea of what time or space I was heading to… I was being transported around the galaxy on a musical and sonic tour.
I floated on the music and sonic textures, as it carried me to another time, to another space..
There was so much to focus in on… at any time, within any space…
Clocks ticking, voices chanting, sonic soars to the left, sonic soars to the right….
The musical and sonic soundscape lifted me, and propelled me to far away stratospheres and universes.
I was travelling, by my self, in a time and to places no one else knew existed.
I was travelling in a time and to a place, where no one else existed…. I was travelling in a time and a place, where no one else could reach me….
This was my time – every when time, and a place – every where place.
I was alone, but not lonely….
There was no one else here to tell me what I should be doing….
In that moment in time – listening, exploring, time travelling – I was independent, I was in charge of my own destiny…
In that moment in time and space, I was me…
In that moment in time and space, I was capable of doing anything.….” (Page 2016c).
More exploration required
I decided the need to explore “Dark Side of the Moon” further in terms of equipment and production process as this juncture, in order to get some more insight as to how I might go about producing a psychedelic styled EP. In addition to listening to the album, I investigated literature such as Reising (2005) [10]. He spoke more of the intended aesthetics, and whilst this was useful for me to gain a better understanding of what – in the opinion of the authors – made this album psychedelic, it was not the specifics I was in search of. I therefore turned to more industry-based textual readings for insight of what I may not have yet realised or discovered about this particular album. In articles by Harris (2005) [11], Massey (2000) [12], Parsons (1975) [13], Price (2015) [14] and Gallagher (2012) [15] – generally from interviews of the engineer of this album, Alan Parsons – they listed significant pieces of equipment used and detailed various aspects of the production process.
I had a long history of Alan Parson’s personal works through albums that I and a friend had, namely:
  • Tales of mystery and imagination[16];
  • I Robot[17];
  • Pyramid[18];
  • Eve[19];
  • On The turn of a friendly card[20] ;
  • Eye in the sky[21].
I was therefore quite familiar with Parson’s multi-layered arrangements and arrangement style. The pieces of equipment mentioned in these articles were of specific microphones, synthesisers, instruments and amplifiers used. However, most importantly, the articles discussed a number of production techniques that I was familiar with, that had become standards practice in contemporary music-making. However, standard practice that did not necessarily rely on acoustic instruments or typical live-guitar performance devices[22]. I knew how many of these musical and sonic tones could be achieved, but through the virtual world of instruments and samples. I could not see at this stage, how I could recreate any of these psychedelic-style musical and sonic tones through the external hardware device options I currently had in my live rig, or had access to.
onion-layers
Footnotes
[1] For HE Bachelor of Audio Trimester 3 level introduction to critical listening analysis, please see: https://davidlintonpage.com/2015/04/10/critical-listening-part-3 (Page 2015a)
[2] The Who’s “Baba O’Riley” on the album “The Kids Are Alright” (Who, 1971) was produced by the Who, with the assistance of well known engineer and Glyn Johns as the associate producer.
[3] For a HE Creative Media degree Trimester 1 introductory blog about the influence Russell Morris had on me as a young person, please see my 2014 blog: https://davidlintonpage.com/2014/10/05/music-practitioner-pt-2-what-brought-me-here (Page 2014; Wikipedia. 2014; The Real Thing 2014a,2014b).
For HE Bachelor of Audio Trimester 2 level critical listening analysis of the same Russell Morris song, please see my 2015 blog: https://davidlintonpage.com/2015/03/12/critical-listening-part-2b (Page 2015b)
[4] Beatles, The. 1966. Revolver. Parlophone. Vinyl LP.
[5] Beatles, The. 1967. Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band. Parlophone. Vinyl LP.
[6] Beatles, The. 1968. White Album. Apple Records. Vinyl LP.
[7] “Tomorrow Never Knows” was a song on the Beatle’s album “Revolver” (Beatles 1966). In addition to numerous other sources, Mastropolo reported on this in his article “THE DAY THE BEATLES KICKED OFF THE ‘REVOLVER’ SESSIONS WITH ‘TOMORROW NEVER KNOWS’  Accessed 6th April, 2016.
[8] John Lennon’s challenge of Sir George Martin in the Beatle’s “Tomorrow Never Knows” song, on the album “Revolver” (Beatles 1966)
[9] Floyd, Pink. 1973. Dark side of the moon. Harvest. Vinyl LP.
[10] Reising, Russell. 2005. Speak to me: the legacy of Pink Floyds The dark side of the moon, Ashgate popular and folk music series. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Company.
[11]Harris, John. 2005. The dark side of the moon: the making of the pink floyd masterpiece. Cambridge, USA: Da Capo Press.
[12] Massey, Howard. 2000. Behind the glass I: top record producers tell how they craft the hits. Vol. 1. Berkeley: Hal Leonard Corporation.
[13] Parsons, Alan. 1975. “Four sides of the moon”. In Studio Sound. Croydon: Link House Publications.
[14] Price, Andy. 2015. “The Making of Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon.” Article. Accessed Feb 4 2016. http://www.musictech.net/2015/06/landmark-productions-pink-floyd-the-dark-side-of-the-moon.
[15] Gallagher, Mitch. 2012. “Studio legends: Alan Parsons on “Dark Side of the Moon”. Accessed Feb 4 2016. http://www.premierguitar.com/articles/Studio_Legends_Alan_Parsons_on_Dark_Side_of_the_Moon.
[16] Parsons, Alan. 1976. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On Tales of mystery and imagination, Alan Parsons. Mercury. Vinyl LP.
[17] Parsons, Alan. 1977. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On I Robot, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
[18] Parsons, Alan. 1978. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On Pyramid, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
[19] Parsons, Alan. 1979. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On Eve, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
[20] Parsons, Alan. 1980. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On The turn of a friendly card, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
[21] Parsons, Alan. 1982. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On Eye in the sky, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
[22] There is generally a distinction made between guitar-based effects and processing devices used in typical live performance scenarios, and studio effects and processing devices used within studio environments and tracking/recording scenarios.
onion-layers
This blog series is planned to continue next month with Doctoral Pilot Study Part 2c (Page 2016d). It is intended for this blog series to continue on a regular basis as I progress through my doctoral research project.
References
Beatles, The. 1968. White Album. Apple Records. Vinyl LP.
Beatles, The. 1967. Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band. Parlophone. Vinyl LP.
Beatles, The. 1966. Revolver. Parlophone. Vinyl LP.
Beatles, The. 1966. “Tomorrow Never Knows”, off The Beatle’s album “Revolver”. Parlophone.  Vinyl LP.
Corey, Jason. 2010. Audio production and critical listening: technical ear training. Oxford: Focal Press.
Emerick, Geoff and Howard Massey. 2007. Here, there and everywhere: my life recording the music of the beatles. New York, NY: Gotham Books.
Everest, F Alton. 2007. Critical listening skills for audio professionals. Boston: Thomson Course Technology.
Everett, Walter. 1999. The Beatles as musicians: Revolver through the Anthology: Oxford University Press, USA.
Floyd, Pink. 1973. Dark side of the moon. Harvest. Vinyl LP.
Gallagher, Mitch. 2012. “Studio legends: Alan Parsons on “Dark Side of the Moon”. Accessed Feb 4 2016. http://www.premierguitar.com/articles/Studio_Legends_Alan_Parsons_on_Dark_Side_of_the_Moon.
Gilreath, Paul. 2010. The guide to midi orchestration. 4th ed. Oxford: Focal.
Harris, John. 2005. The dark side of the moon: the making of the pink floyd masterpiece. Cambridge, USA: Da Capo Press.
Kemp, Anthony E. 1996. The musical temperament. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lewisohn, Mark. 2010. The complete Beatles chronicle: the definitive day-by-day guide to the Beatles’ entire career. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
Lewisohn, Mark and Paul McCartney. 2005. The complete Beatles recording sessions: the official story of the abbey road years 1962-1970. New York: Bounty books.
Massey, Howard. 2000. Behind the glass I: top record producers tell how they craft the hits. Vol. 1. Berkeley: Hal Leonard Corporation.
Mastropolo, Frank. 2016. “The Day The Beatles Kicked Off The ‘Revolver’ Sessions With ‘Tomorrow Never Knows’  Accessed 6th April, 2016.
Moore, Allan F. 2012. Song means: analysing and Interpreting recorded popular song, Ashgate Popular and Folk Music Series. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Moorefield, Virgil. 2005. The producer as composer: shaping the sounds of popular music. London: MIT Press.
Moylan, William. 2007. The art of recording: the creative resources of music production and audio. 2nd ed. Boston: Focal Press.
Onion image courtesy of: Onion Layers Accessed 15th December, 2014
Page, David L. 2017. Figure II – 5th Observation image courtesy of David L Page Created 10th June, 2017
Page, David L. 2016d. Doctoral Pilot Study – Part 2c Accessed 29th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2016c. Doctoral Pilot Study iNotes Accessed 17th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2016b. Figure I – Praxis v5a image courtesy of David L Page. Created 31st January, 2016
Page, David L. 2016a. Doctoral Pilot Study – Part 1f Accessed 17th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2015b Critical Listening Part 3 Accessed 17th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2015a Critical Listening Part 2b  Accessed 17th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2014b Music Practitioner Part 2 – What brought me here Accessed 17th February 2016
Page, David L. 2014a image courtesy of David L Page Created 15th December, 2014
Parsons, Alan. 1982. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On Eye in the sky, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
Parsons, Alan. 1980. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On The turn of a friendly card, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
Parsons, Alan. 1979. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On Eve, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
Parsons, Alan. 1978. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On Pyramid, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
Parsons, Alan. 1977. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On I Robot, Alan Parsons. Arista. Vinyl LP.
Parsons, Alan. 1976. “Alan Parson’s Project.” On Tales of mystery and imagination, Alan Parsons. Mercury. Vinyl LP.
Parsons, Alan. 1975. “Four sides of the moon”. In Studio Sound. Croydon: Link House Publications.
Practice image courtesy of David L Page Accessed 4th February, 2016
Price, Andy. 2015. “The Making of Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon.” Article. Accessed Feb 4 2016. http://www.musictech.net/2015/06/landmark-productions-pink-floyd-the-dark-side-of-the-moon.
Psychedelic Rock image courtesy of Ultimate Guitar.com  Accessed 5th February 2016
Reising, Russell. 2005. Speak to me: the legacy of Pink Floyds The dark side of the moon, Ashgate popular and folk music series. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Ryan, Kevin and Brian Kehew. 2006. Recording the Beatles: the studio equipment and techniques used to create their classic albums. London: Curvebender.
Self image courtesy of David L Page Accessed 4th February, 2016
Théberge, Paul. 2012. “The end of the world as we know It: the changing role of the studio in the age of the internet.” In The art of record production: an introductory reader for a new academic field, edited by Simon Frith and Simon Zagorski-Thomas, 77-90. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.
Théberge, Paul. 1997. Any sound you can make: making music/consuming technology. Hanover: University Press of New England.
Wikipedia. 2014. The real thing (Russell Morris)   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Real_Thing_(Russell_Morris_song)  Accessed 4th October, 2014.
The Real Thing 2014b. article courtesy of: The Real Thing Accessed 4th October, 2014.
The Real Thing 2014a. video clip courtesy of: The Real Thing  Accessed 4th October, 2014.
Vella, Richard and Andy Arthurs. 2003. Sounds in space, sounds in time: projects in listening, improvising and composing. Vol. 2. London: Boosey & Hawkes.
Who, The. 2007. Amazing journey: the story of the who. Universal Pictures. DVD.
Who, The. 1971. “Baba O’Riley” off the album The Who’s “The Kids Are Alright”
– @David L Page 17/02/2016
– updated @David L Page 29/02/2016
– updated @David L Page 10/06/2017
Copyright: No aspect of the content of this blog or blog site is to be reprinted or used within any practice without strict permission directly from David L Page.

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Doctoral Pilot Study – Part 2a

My journey continues….

~DLP Pro Image Fun 5b small.20141020

(Page 2014)
This blog is a continuation of a series. See here (Page 2016a) for the previous blog.

Year 2016: 5th Observation Part a

Whilst I was making headway with the development of my music praxis – significant headway in my opinion – , my actual production plan still did not have the degree of clarity I had hoped for after four (4) weeks. I therefore decided to go through each step of my Praxis v5a in terms of my production process, deliberately and systematically.
DLP DCI Praxis v5a.20160131.P2
Figure I – Praxis v5a (Page 2016b)
In following this process I made my 5th Observation.
5th Observation.P5e.renamed
Figure II – 5th Observation (Page 2017)
Of the five (5) stages of practice, I was in the first stage of creative practice: the creative stage.
  1. Creative Stage
  2. Pre-production Stage
  3. Production Stage
  4. Post-Production Stage
  5. Distribution Stage
 In the creative stage, I brainstormed a number of Project 1 creative ideas based on my project brief. The five (5) track EP was to be representative of some aspect of my life: past, present or future envisioning.

SELF….20171230.P1.png

Self

The 1st element of praxis that was accounted for was, self: a representative aspect of my life. I therefore needed to focus on my self motive for practice: why I was wanting to do what I did in music-making.
Motive/s for practice
In terms of the second (2nd) element of praxis, my motives for practice within this Doctporal Pilot Study was that of (but not restricted only to):
  1. Discovery: accepting music-making practice as a medium to explore – attempting to understand something which I hadn’t understood previously; deriving pleasure from discovering something new (Csikszentmihalyi 1996, 109);
a second motive was:
  1. Technical: accepting music-making practice as a medium to practice my craft, and to develop my craft skills technically;
a third motive was:
  1. Affective: accepting music-making practice as a technology for emotional construction within both the artist/performer and the listener (Denora 2001, 168). I also understood emotions would guide my decisions in music-making and therefore I needed to acknowledge this third motive was potentially both a conscious and an unconscious motivator (Appelhans & Luecken 2006, 229).
a fourth motive was:
  1. Aesthetic: accepting music-making practice as a technology to generate an aesthetic experience for the artist/performer and the listener (Denora 2001, 168; Csikszentmihalyi & Robinson 1990, 7).
a fifth motive was:
  1. Creative: accepting music-making practice as a technology to engage in creative flow, following a creative process of preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation and elaboration (Csikszentmihalyi 1996, pp 79-80).
and a sixth motive was:
  1. Social: accepting music-making practice as a social – interactive – process between the artist/performer and the listener (Small 1998, 10; Denora 2001, 168). Additional to a motive for practice, I understood my need to also have a motive for the creative piece – the song. Since my re-connecting with music at university, I had found I was less inclined to engage in the practice of song-writing just for the sake of creating. I found I had to have a purpose to create, something to say: a message. I have for many years referred to this alignment of my motive to practice, and the output of the practice – the cultural production – as being congruent, or not. Taylor & Littleton (2012, 121) refer to this “fit or congruence between” the practitioner and the practice as “personalisation”.
I did not consider the remaining motives to be so relevant at this point in time for me. I wasn’t however discounting that they may become motives within this pilot study at any point in the future, as often was the case:
  1. Educational: to demonstrate specific music-making practice to my students, live or in preparation;
  2. Physical: to use music-making practice as a medium for physical expression, for exercise;
  3. Commercial: to use music-making practice as a medium for income generation purposes.
target
Focussed message for the creative production
It was now time to create, and therefore a question in my mind was:
  • what specifically was this to mean in terms of this specific composition?
  • what was my over-arching message for this Project 1 Pilot Study cultural production going to be? I knew from past experience that I had to decide on a Project 1 theme as early as I could, in order to move on in the process of creating. My intervention into my creative process seemed to abstract: it seemed too global. What was a more grounded motive, a more grounded message to be?
  • thirdly – attached to the element of motive – is that of song mood. What the likely song mood to be? Happy? sad? focussed and directed? melancholic? dancy? jovial? (Kemp 1996, 2). I guessed it was likely going to be somewhat melancholic given the underlying theme of intervention as a result of years of frustration at being unable to realise my creative goals. But as I had not decided upon a creative practice message at this time, it was all a bit up in the air.
As per usual past practice when I was in this type of creative quandary, I turned to media for inspiration. An i-Note reflective journal entry at this time:
“Over the past few days, I have watched by a number of videos, each of which I bought many years ago… And yet now – at this place and time – I am no longer inspired by these. ……” (Page 2016c)
Shortly after, another entry developed this idea:
Humans hoard things for tomorrow. Humans instinctively hoard things, originally food items, in readiness for tomorrow, preparing for a cold, hard winter when there was primitive housing and arduous weather conditions. My hoarding of music and movie DVDs was not perhaps for the yesterdays when I bought them, but for tomorrow, when I NEED them…..” (Page 2016c)
I was not connecting to an idea, so I scoured my book shelves, and even poured back through my many filing cabinet drawers of ideas. Still not one particular idea that stood out to me. I accepted that it was part of the creative preparation process , but was not without frustration. In order to progress the creative process without deciding on a message that I connected to, I felt I had other choice but to just move on, and take the next step in my Praxis 5a.
onion-layers
This blog series is planned to continue next month with Doctoral Pilot Study Part 2b (Page 2016d). It is intended for this blog series to continue on a regular basis as I progress through my doctoral research project.
References
Appelhans, Bradley M and Linda J Luecken. 2006. “Heart rate variability as an index of regulated emotional responding.” Review of general psychology 10 (3): 229.
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1996. Creativity: flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper Perennial.
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Rick Emery Robinson. 1990. The art of seeing: an interpretation of the aesthetic encounter. Santa Monica: Getty Publications.
Denora, Tia. 2001. “Aesthetic agency and musical practice: new directions in the sociology of music and emotion.” In Music and emotion: theory and research, edited by Patrik N Juslin and John A Sloboda, 161-180. Oxford: 2001.
Kemp, Anthony E. 1996. The musical temperament. New York: Oxford University Press.
Onion image courtesy of: Onion Layers Accessed 15th December, 2014
Page, David L. 2017. Figure II – 5th Observation image courtesy of David L Page Created 10th June, 2017
Page, David L. 2016d. Doctoral Pilot Study – Part 2b Accessed 17th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2016c. Doctoral Pilot Study iNotes Accessed 5th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2016b. Figure I – Praxis v5a image courtesy of David L Page. Created 31st January, 2016
Page, David L. 2016a. Doctoral Pilot Study – Part 1f Accessed 5th February, 2016
Page, David L. 2014 image courtesy of David L Page Created 15th December, 2014
Practice image courtesy of David L Page  Accessed 4th February, 2016
Practice image courtesy of David L Page  Accessed 4th February, 2016
Small, Christopher. 1998. Musicking: the meanings of performing and listening. Hanover: University Press of New England.
Target image courtesy of: Target Accessed 14th October 2010
Taylor, Stephanie and Karen Littleton. 2012. Contemporary identities of creativity and creative work. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
– @David L Page 5/02/2016
– updated @David L Page 17/02/2016
– updated @David L Page 10/06/2017
Copyright: No aspect of the content of this blog or blog site is to be reprinted or used within any practice without strict permission directly from David L Page.

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Now

Now
This blog is a continuation of a series. See here for the previous blog.

The Opportunity

The here and now always represents an opportunity – an opportunity to change, or not to change. To choose either is a choice, despite what we may tell ourselves.
As the image above highlights, life is dynamic, flowing in patterns. However unlike the image above, the patterns of life are not always as obvious to us humans. Sometimes we are too close and involved to see. We may need some distance, or an outside opinion to gain some perspective on the actuality of the situation.
In all aspects of life, irrespective of whether we are engaging in sport, in exercise, a hobby, a job, or being a family member, a lover or a friend, it is our responsibility to develop our practice – the way we engage and do things.
It is our responsibility to plan, to act, to stop, to reflect and consider, to seek outside opinion and feedback, to critically analyse our actions and the outcomes realised, to propose and to adapt, and then to continue our practice. The discipline of development via reflective and reflexive practice is not a one-off affair, but an on-going commitment to the advancement of our maturity, our wisdom, our knowledge, and our skills.
DL Logo_Full.20141231.v3c
In my life I have had the opportunity of diverse experiences across a number of industries and disciplines in a number of cultures and countries. I am very fortunate to have had such diversity of opportunities. However, at certain junctures we are presented with opportunities to reflect on our practice, our current trajectory, and change our direction.
QUT Industries logo
My current doctoral research study in the Creative Industries is an opportunity to explore a new direction, and most importantly as part of the process, stop and critically reflect on my four decades of music practice to investigate the way I engage and do things as a contemporary DIY music practitioner. Now represents an opportunity – an opportunity to develop a plan, to act, to stop, to reflect and consider, to seek outside opinion and feedback, to critically analyse my actions and the outcomes realised, to propose and to adapt, and then to continue my practice. Hopefully as a more mature, wise, knowledgeable and skilful practitioner.
This blog series is planned to continue next month with Research Practitioner Part 3. It is intended for this blog series to continue on a regular basis as I progress through my doctoral research project.
References
DL 2005 US Review image courtesy of DL. Accessed 14th January, 2016
QUT Creative Industries image courtesy of QUT Creative Industries. Accessed 14th January, 2016
Pulsating image courtesy of: Image Accessed 15th January, 2016
– ©David L Page 15/01/2016
Copyright: No aspect of the content of this blog or blog site is to be reprinted or used within any practice without strict permission directly from David L Page.

Me, myself, I – my lifelong commitment to advancing my self & my creative practice

September 2015 Message sent to my HE undergraduate Creative Practice students at the completion of their Trimester studies.

The Art of self-reflection

“I think the grades and comments are reflective of your personal learning and effort across this Trimester. Irrespective of your grade or overall result, I trust that everyone has an increased awareness of their Creative Arts practice, and themselves as a Creative Arts practitioner.
In my experience, learning never ceases; as long as we keep reflecting on what we are doing, analysing how we are doing it, and then considering how we can improve. And lastly of course, applying new ways back into our practice (reflexively). This process is best done not only to our practice, but perhaps most importantly, to our selves, as practitioners. We should see our selves as commanders of our own ships, in need of ongoing development and improvement.

DIY Image

Please be as proactive in your practice as you can afford the time over your break. I look forward to seeing you around the college you next Trimester”. 
Regards, Dave
What I am listening to: The Beach Boys’ “Smile”  Peace out!
References
DIY image courtesy of: DIY Accessed 9th September 2015
Self reflection image courtesy of: Self-reflection-for-personal-growth  Accessed 9th September 2015
– ©David L Page 10/09/2015
Copyright: No aspect of the content of this blog or blog site is to be reprinted or used within any practice without strict permission directly from David L Page.